|Beeswax (see beeswax under carrier ingredients).
|Vegetable base that bonds ingredients.
|Algae, Blue Green
|This nutrient is high in vitamins, minerals, amino acids and protein. Helps clear skin and scalp.
|A natural reddish colorant obtained from extraction of the herb-like tree root grown in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor.
|From comfrey, and used in skin-soothing body care to stimulate the growth of healthy tissue, and for its ability to help heal wounds and skin ulcers.
|Ammonium Laurel Sulfate/
Ammonium Laureth Sulfate
|Derived from natural coconut alcohols, this ammonium salt of lauryl sulfate is a mild anionic (negatively charged ion) surfactant cleanser. Widely used at mild acidic pH values. Compound breaks up and holds oils and dirt so they can be easily washed away.
|A yellow to pink natural vegetable colorant from a tropical tree.
|Contains nourishing minerals and is a green clay that can be found in the Midwestern United States and Canada. Warms the skin and draws out impurities.
|Benzoin Gum, powdered
|This balsamic resin comes from the incised bark of Asian trees, Styrax species. Powder is ground from resin that has hardened on exposure to air and sunlight. Used as antioxidant, antiseptic, astringent, fixative and preservative. Promotes healing. Has a sweet, vanilla-like scent. A liquid absolute is another product that is made from the resin.
|Reddish crystalline powder used as a coloring in cosmetics.
|The broken outer husk of any grain. Acts as a mild abrasive for sensitive skin.
|Used as a coloring in cosmetics and has soothing qualities. Also used as a flavoring and coloring ingredient in foods.
|A slightly acidic, white synthetic powder used as an emulsifier and thickener in the cosmetic field.
|Commonly known as Irish Sea Moss, this seaweed is used as a skin soother, stabilizer and emulsifier. Has the familiar seaweed-like odor.
|This herb, Stellaria media, exerts an anti-inflammatory action and is used for skin irritations, itches and rashes.
|The green component of plants that make it possible for photosynthesis, turning light into plant food. Has an antiseptic, fungicidal, odor-absorbing and greenish colorant quality.
|Derived from fruit by fermentation of crude sugars. One of the more widely used acids in cosmetics as a preservative, astringent and sequestering agent, and to adjust acid-alkali balances.
|Surfactant, thickener, and hair conditioner from coconut (see coconut oil under carrier ingredients).
|Surfactant from coconut (see coconut oil under carrier ingredients).
|Comfrey root from Symphytum officinale, and its extract Allantoin (see reference above) are used in a variety of cosmetics. Anti-inflammatory, astringent, emollient.
|Dead Sea Salt
|Salts with a higher mineral content than regular salts and come from the Dead Sea.
|A European herb, Enula helenium, now grown in the United States.
|Specially treated wax that makes a stable emulsion when combined with an oil and water mixture.
|The root of the Oriental ginseng, Panax ginseng, and the American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, are used in hair care and cosmetic products. Rich in vitamins and minerals. Stimulant, stress reducer, irritation soother and toner. Also known for its use as a tea and in capsules.
|Grapefruit Seed Extract
|Extracted from grapefruit seeds and pulp, this pale lemon colored, heavy viscous liquid has a mild citrus odor and is used as a natural preservative in cosmetics. Also called Citricidal, personal uses abound for this product. Properly diluted, use as facial cleanser, skin rinse and nail and scalp treatments, and also as a household cleaner and refresher. Highly effective and powerful antiparasitic, antiviral, bactericidal, fungicidal. Environmentally friendly and low to no toxicity to humans and animals. May be one of the finest natural, and most versatile, antimicrobial compounds available.
|Leaf of the white camellia, Camellia sinensis. It is used to brew the common tea we drink from the leaves that have not been fermented before drying. Reputed to have many nutritional, healthful and anti-cellulite properties. It is a skin soother and very strong antioxidant.
|Hydrolyzed Whole Wheat Protein
|Liquefaction (to make liquid) derived by hydrolysis (decomposition that changes a compound into other compounds) or turned partly into water.
|Cellulose is the main constituent of plant fiber, and is the base material for this cellulose gum. Used as a thickener and emulsifier in cosmetic lotions and creams. Resistant to bacterial decomposition and provides a uniform viscosity to cosmetics.
|Dark blue to purple natural colorant with antiseptic properties from various plants, Indigofera species.
|French Clay. This highly absorbent white clay removes excess oil and sebum. Aids in the covering ability of face powders and in absorbing oils. When used as a mask, exfoliates and removes toxins and impurities from the skin.
|From a variety of seaweeds, including Laminaria sp., Fucus vesiculosus and the giant Pacific marine plant, Macrocystis pyriferae. Contains many vitamins and minerals. Anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic and astringent. Seaweed-like odor. Soothing.
|Derived from the principal fatty acid of coconut oil, it is used as a softener and foam-builder.
|Found in all living organisms, frequently obtained from soybeans and egg yolks. A natural emollient, antioxidant, emulsifier and spreading agent. Contains high amounts of Phospholipids, which are important for cellular health.
|Epsom salts. A magnesium salt used as a bath additive and to soothe and refresh the body.
|Used as a texturizer and is a sugar obtained by hydrolysis of starch.
|These parabens are some of the most commonly used preservatives. Stable over the pH range of cosmetics, these synthetics provide a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and are used in foods and cosmetics.
|Gum derived from the tree, Commiphora myrrha. Has antibacterial qualities. Also see essential oils.
|Broken coat of oats, Avena sativa. Makes a gentle cleansing grain and skin softener.
|Obtained by grinding the oat, Avena sativa. This grain is a natural toner and cleanser with gentle exfoliating action. Soothing and softening.
|PABA (Para-aminobenzoic acid)
|Well-known sun protection ingredient for its ability to screen out the burning effects from UV rays. The colorless or yellowish acid is found in the Vitamin B complex contained in bran, eggs, liver, blackstrap molasses, wheat germ, etc.
|Vitamin B Complex Factor. Good for human tissue and used in hair products, as an emollient and food supplement.
|The ground pods are form the dried sweet, ripe pepper, Capsicum annuum, and used as a reddish colorant. Best known as a food spice and flavoring.
|Obtained from fruits and vegetables, this natural substance is used in cosmetics as a thickener and emulsifier. Soothing and mildly acidic. Also used as a thickening agent for food.
|Known as a food additive, make a gentle cleansing grain.
|Also called Caustic Potash. Highly alkali, this is the most common chemical used to cause a reaction with fats and oils that make liquid soap, with the process known as soponification. Once cured, this caustic ingredient is no longer present.
|Ground Volcanic rock. Skin cleansing abrasive.
|Vitamin A. Used in lubricating creams and oils for its purported skin-healing properties. Anti-oxidant. Promotes skin elasticity and smoothness.
|Vitamin A ester, and a palmitic acid which occurs naturally in plant oils, celery seed, cascarilla bark, anise, allspice, and many animal fats. Used as a texturizer.
|Dried bark of the North American tree, Sassafras albidum. Topical antiseptic and used to correct disagreeable odors. Possible sensitization in some individuals.
|See Carrageenan and Kelp.
|Baking soda. Used in skin-soothing powders and effervescent bath salts. Alkali.
|Borax. Naturally occurring mild alkali mineral used as a water softener, preservative, emulsifier and texturizer in cosmetic products. Disinfectant.
|Used as an astringent and antiseptic. Absorbs water and used to treat inflamed lesions. Commonly referred to as table salt.
|Commonly know as lye or caustic soda, this extremely alkaline chemical is combined with fats and oils to cause a reaction that makes solid soap, and the process is known as soponification. Once cured, the lye is no longer present.
|This quaternary ammonium compound has antistatic properties, improves the ability to comb the hair and adds shine.
|Occurs naturally in butter acids, cascarilla bark, tallow, and other animal fats and oils. This white, waxy, crystalline fatty acid is used in cosmetics as a base and an emollient.
|Known in the food industry for its thickening ability. Softening.
|Commonly used in mass-produced merchandise and nearly natural cosmetics. Used as a synthetic emulsifier, pH adjuster and preservative. Also used as a coating agent for fresh vegetables and fruit.
|Natural Vitamin E. Antioxidant, preservative. Moisturizes, fights skin damage and rejuvenates cellular activity.
|An aromatic East Indian herb, Curcuma longa, and used as a natural golden to orange colorant. Better known as a food spice and pepper-like flavoring.
|Colorants derived from natural earth pigments.
Golden germ of wheat, Tricticum aestivum, is high in vitamin E. Use for facial masks and as a gentle cleansing grain for dry and sensitive skin.
Resources: "A Consumer's Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients" by Ruth Winter, M.S.; "The Art of Aromatherapy" by Robert B. Tisserand; The Soapmaker's Companion" by Susan Miller Cavitch; "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils" by Julia Lawless; "Complete Aromatherapy Handbook" by Susanne Fischer-Rizzi.